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Regulations and Enforcement- American Samoa

MVC-006LThe American Samoa Fishery Ecosystem Plan (FEP) contains the fishery management regimes for bottomfish, crustacean, precious coral and coral reef ecosystem fisheries in the US exclusive economic zone waters (EEZ), i.e., 3 to 200 miles from shore. Federal regulations for these fisheries are enforced by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Office of Law Enforcement (OLE) Pacific Islands Division, the US Coast Guard’s District Fourteen and the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR), through a cooperative enforcement agreement with NMFS OLE. Management measures for pelagic fisheries in the US EEZ are found in the Pacific Pelagics FEP.

“For information on the Territory of American Samoa’s fishing regulations (0 to 3 miles offshore), click here. Territory of American Samoa fishing regulations are enforced by DMWR conservation officers. NOAA Fisheries Pacific Island Regional Office have compiled multiple compliance guides that are designed to provide information on current regulations that affect fishing around the Western Pacific. PDF copies of the compliance guides can be found at here.  Compliance guides are updated often, so check regularly for updates.

“For management measures pertaining to the recently proclaimed Rose Atoll National Marine Monument, click here. NOAA published a “Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments” Compliance guide in July 2014, click here for pdf.  The compliance guide gives the regulations on how to comply with the requirements for fishing within the monuments.

NOAA also published a compliance guide on “American Samoa Longline Regulation Summary”, click here for pdf.

 

Summary of Federal Bottomfish Regulations

• Ban on use of bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets

• Ban on possession or use of any poisons, explosives or intoxicating substances to harvest bottomfish or seamount groundfish

Click here for list of federally managed Bottomfish species.

Summary of Federal Crustaceans Regulations

• Federal permit and logbook reporting

• Notification before port landing and before offloading

• Observer coverage when requested by National Marine Fisheries Service

Click here for list of federally managed crustacean species.

Summary of Federal Precious Corals Regulations

• Federal permit and logbook reporting

• Use of only selective gear that can discriminate or differentiate between type, size, quality or characteristics of living or dead corals

• Quota of 1,000 kg for all species combined (except black coral)

• Minimum height 10 inches for live pink coral

• Minimum stem diameter 1 inch or minimum height 48 inches for live black coral

• Moratorium on gold coral 2008 to 2013

Click here for list of federally managed Precious Corals species.

 

Summary of Federal Coral Reef Ecosystem Regulations

• Special permit, reporting and pre-landing notification for any directed fishery on potentially harvested coral reef taxa

• Allowable gear types include hand-harvest, spear, slurp gun, hand/dip net, hoop net for Kona crab, throw net, barrier net, surround/purse net that is attended at all times, hook-and-line, crab and fish traps with vessel ID number affixed or remote operating vehicle/submersible.

• Special permit, reporting and pre-landing notification requirements apply for the use of other gear types to harvest coral reef ecosystem taxa

• Ban on possession and use of poisons, explosives or intoxicating substances to take coral reef ecosystem managed species

• Ban on harvest of live rock and living corals except for indigenous people for traditional uses and aquaculture operations for seed stock under special permit, reporting and pre-landing notification requirements

• No-take MPA landward of 50 fathom curve around Rose Atoll

Click here for list of federally managed Coral Reef Ecosystem Management Unit species.

American Samoa Bottomfish Management Unit Species

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Samoan Name

Aphareus rutilans

red snapper/silvermouth

palu-gutusiliva

Aprion virescens

gray snapper/jobfish

asoama

Caranx ignobilis

Giant trevally/jack

sapoanae

Caranx lugubris

Black trevally/jack

tafauli

Epinephelus fasciatus

blacktip grouper

fausi

Variola louti

lunartail grouper

papa, velo

Etelis carbunculus

red snapper

palu malau

Etelis coruscans

red snapper

palu-loa

Lethrinus amboinensis

ambon emperor

filoa-gutumumu

Lethrinu rubrioperculatus

redgill emperor

filoa-paomumu

Lutjanus kasmira

blueline snapper

savane

Pristipomoides auricilla

yellowtail snapper

palu-i’usama

Pristipomoides filamentosus

pink snapper

palu-‘ena’ena

Pristipomoides flavipinnis

yelloweye snapper

palu-sina

Pristipomoides seiboldii

pink snapper

palu

Pristipomoides zonatus

Snapper

palu-ula, palu-sega

Seriola dumerili

Amberjack

Malauli

 

See? [top]

American Samoa Crustacean Management Unit Species 

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Samoan Name

Panulirus marginatus

spiny lobster

ula

Panulirus penicillatus

spiny lobster

ula-sami

Family Scyllaridae

slipper lobster

papata

Ranina ranina

kona crab

pa’a

See? [top]

American Samoa Precious Coral Management Unit Species

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Samoan Name

Corallium secundum

pink coral

(also known as red coral)

amu piniki-mumu

Corallium regale

pink coral

(also known as red coral)

amu piniki-mumu

Corallium laauense

pink coral

(also known as red coral)

amu piniki-mumu

Gerardia spp.

gold coral

amu auro

Narella spp.

gold coral

amu auro

Calyptrophora spp.

gold coral

amu auro

Lepidisis olapa

bamboo coral

amu ofe

Acanella spp.

bamboo coral

amu ofe

Antipathes dichotoma

black coral

amu uliuli

Antipathes grandis

black coral

amu uliuli

Antipathes ulex

black coral

amu uliuli

See? [top]

American Samoa Coral Reef Ecosystem Management Unit Species

(Currently Harvested Coral Reef Taxa)

Family Name

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Samoan Name

Acanthuridae

(Surgeonfishes)

Acanthurus olivaceus

orange-spot surgeonfish

afinamea

Acanthurus xanthopterus

yellowfin surgeonfish

**

Acanthurus triostegus

convict tang

aanini

Acanthurus dussumieri

eye-striped surgeonfish

**

Acanthurus nigroris

blue-lined surgeon

ponepone, gaitolama

Acanthurus lineatus

blue-banded surgeonfish

alogo

Acanthurus nigricauda

blackstreak surgeonfish

pone-i’usama

Acanthurus nigricans

whitecheek surgeonfish

laulama,

Acanthurus guttatus

white-spotted surgeonfish

maogo

Acanthurus blochii

ringtail surgeonfish

**

Acanthurus nigrofuscus

brown surgeonfish

ponepone

Acanthurus mata

elongate surgeonfish

**

Acanthurus pyroferus

mimic surgeonfish

**

Ctenochaetus strigosus

yellow-eyed surgeonfish

pone

Ctenochaetus striatus

striped bristletooth

pone, pala’ia, logoulia

Ctenochaetus binotatus

twospot bristletooth

**

Naso unicornus

bluespine unicornfish

ume-isu

Naso lituratus

orangespine unicornfish

ili’ilia, umelei

Naso hexacanthus

black tongue unicornfish

**

Naso vlamingii

bignose unicornfish

ume-masimasi

Naso annulatus

whitemargin unicornfish

**

Naso brevirostris

spotted unicornfish

ume-ulutao

Naso thynnoides

barred unincornfish

**

Balistidae

(Triggerfishes)

Balistoides viridescens

titan triggerfish

sumu, sumu-laulau

Balistapus undulatus

orangstriped triggerfish

**

Melichthys vidua

pinktail triggerfish

sumu-‘apa’apasina, sumu-si’umumu

Melichthys niger

black triggerfish

sumu-uli

Pseudobalistes fuscus

blue Triggerfish

sumu-laulau

Rhinecanthus aculeatus

picassofish

sumu-uo’uo, sumu-aloalo

Sufflamen fraenatum

bridled triggerfish

sumu-gase’ele’ele

Selar crumenophthalmus

bigeye scad

atule

Decapterus macarellus

mackerel scad

atuleau, namuauli

Carcharhinidae

(Sharks)

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos

grey reef shark

malie-aloalo

Carcharhinus albimarginatus

silvertip shark

aso

Carcharhinus galapagensis

galapagos shark

malie

Carcharhinus melanopterus

blacktip reef shark

apeape, malie-alamata

Triaenodon obesus

whitetip reef shark

malu

Holocentridae

(Soldierfish/Squir-relfish

Holocentridae

(Soldierfish/

Squirrelfish)

Myripristis berndti

bigscale soldierfish

malau-ugatele, malau-va’ava’a

Myripristis adusta

bronze soldierfish

malau-tui

Myripristis murdjan

blotcheye soldierfish

**

Myripristis amaena

brick soldierfish

**

Myripristis pralinia

scarlet soldierfish

malau-mamo, malau-va’ava’a.

Myripristis violacea

violet soldierfish

malau-tuauli

Myripristis vittata

whitetip soldierfish

**

Myripristis chryseres

yellowfin soldierfish

**

Myripristis kuntee

pearly soldierfish

malau-pu’u

Myripristis hexagona

double tooth squirrelfish

**

Sargocentron melanospilos

blackspot squirrelfish

**

Sargocentron microstoma

file-lined squirrelfish

malau-tianiu

Sargocentron tiereoides

pink squirrelfish

**

Sargocentron diadema

crown squirrelfish

malau-tui, malau-talapu’u, malau-tusitusi, malau-pauli.

Sargocentron punctatissimum

peppered squirrelfish

**

Sargocentron tiere

blue-lined squirrelfish

**

Sargocentron spiniferum

Saber or Long jaw squirrelfish

tamalu, mu-malau, malau-toa

Neoniphon spp.

spotfin squirrelfish

**

Kuhliidae

(Flagtails)

Kuhlia mugil

barred flag-tail

safole, inato

Kyphosus biggibus

rudderfish

nanue

Kyphosidae

(Rudderfish)

Kyphosus cinerascens

rudderfish

nanue, mata-mutu, mutumutu.

Kyphosus vaigienses

rudderfish

nanue

Labridae

(Wrasses)

Cheilinus undulatus

napoleon wrasse

lalafi, tagafa. malakea

Cheilinus trilobatus

triple-tail wrasse

lalafi-matamumu

Cheilinus chlorourus

floral wrasse

lalafi-matapua’a

Cheilinus fasciatus

harlequin tuskfish

lalafi-pulepule

Oxycheilinus diagrammus

bandcheek wrasse

sugale

Oxycheilinus arenatus

arenatus wrasse

sugale

Xyrichtys aneitensis

whitepatch wrasse

sugale-tatanu

Cheilio inermis

cigar wrasse

sugale-mo’o

Hemigymnus melapterus

blackeye thicklip

sugale-laugutu, sugale-uli, sugale-aloa, sugale-lupe.

Hemigymnus fasciatus

barred thicklip

sugale-gutumafia

Halichoeres trimaculatus

three-spot wrasse

lape, sugale-pagota

Halichoeres hortulanus

checkerboard wrasse

sugale-a’au, sugale-pagota, ifigi

Halichoeres margaritaceus

weedy surge wrasse

sugale-uluvela

Thalassoma purpureum

surge wrasse

uloulo-gatala, patagaloa

Thalassoma quinquevittatum

red ribbon wrasse

lape-moana

Thalassoma lutescens

sunset wrasse

sugale-samasama

Novaculichthys taeniourus

rockmover wrasse

sugale-la’o, sugale-taili, sugale-gasufi.

Mullidae

(Goatfishes)

Mulloidichthys spp.

yellow goatfish

i’asina, vete, afulu

Mulloidichthys vanicolensis

yellowfin goatfish

vete

Mulloidichthys flaviolineatus

yellowstripe goatfish

afolu, afulu

Parupeneus spp

banded goatfish

afoul, afulu

Parupeneus barberinus

dash-dot goatfish

tusia, tulausaena, ta’uleia

Parupeneus bifasciatus

doublebar goatfish

matulau-moana

Parupeneus heptacanthus

redspot goatfish

moana-ula

Parupeneus cyclostomas

yellowsaddle goatfish

i’asina, vete, afulu, moana

Parupeneus pleurostigma

side-spot goatfish

matulau-ilamutu

Parupeneus multifaciatus

multi-barred goatfish

i’asina, vete, afulu

Mugilidae (Mullets)

Crenimugil crenilabis

fringelip mullet

anae, aua. Fuafua

Neomyxus leuciscus

false mullet

moi, poi

Muraenidae (Moray eels)

Gymnothorax flavimarginatus

yellowmargin moray eel

pusi

Gymnothorax javanicus

giant moray eel

maoa’e

Gymnothorax undulatus

undulated moray eel

pusi-pulepule

Octopodidae

(Octopus)

Octopus cyanea

octopus

fe’e

Octopus ornatus

octopus

fe’e

Polynemidae

Polydactylus sexfilis

threadfin

umiumia, i’ausi

Pricanthidae (Bigeye)

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus

glasseye

matapula

Priacanthus hamrur

bigeye

matapula

Scaridae

(Parrotfishes)

Calotomus carolinus

stareye parrotfish

fuga

Scarus spp.

parrotfish

fuga, galo-uluto’I, fuga-valea, laea-mamanu

Hipposcarus longiceps

pacific longnose parrotfish

ulapokea, laea-ulapokea

Scombridae

Gymnosarda unicolor

dogtooth tuna

tagi

Siganidae

(Rabbitfish)

Siganus aregenteus

forktail rabbitfish

loloa, lo

Sphyraenidae (Barracuda)

Sphyraena helleri

heller’s barracuda

sapatu

Sphyraena barracuda

great Barracuda

saosao

Turbinidae

(green snails)

Turbo spp.

green snails

alili

 

 

American Samoa Coral Reef Ecosytem Management Unit Species

(Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa) 

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Samoan Name

Labridae

Wrasses

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

sugale, sugale-vaolo, sugale-a’a, lalafi, lape-a’au, la’ofia

Carcharhinidae

Sphyrnidae

sharks

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

malie, apoapo, moemoeao

Dasyatididae

Myliobatidae

rays and skates

fai

Ephippidae

batfishes

pe’ape’a

Haemulidae

sweetlips

mutumutu, misimisi, ava’ava-moana

Echeneidae

remoras

talitaliuli

Malacanthidae

tilefishes

mo’o, mo’otai

Pseudochromidae

dottybacks

tiva

Plesiopidae

prettyfins

aneanea, tafuti

Caracanthidae

coral crouchers

tapua

Anomalopidae

flashlightfishes

##

Serrandiae

groupers

(those species not listed as CHCRT or BMUS)

gatala, ataata, vaolo, gatala-uli, gatala-sega, gatala-aleva, ateate, apoua, susami, gatala-sina, gatala-mumu.

Carangidae

jacks and scads

(those species not listed as CHCRT or BMUS)

lupo, lupota, mamalusi, ulua, sapoanae, taupapa, nato, filu, atuleau, malauli-apamoana, malauli-sinasama, malauli-matalapo’a, lai

Holocentridae

soldierfishes and squirrelfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

malau

Mullidae

goatfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

i’asina, vete, afulu, afoul, ulula’oa

Acanthuridae

surgeonfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

pone, palagi

Clupeidae

herrings

pelupelu, nefu

Engraulidae

anchovies

nefu, file

Gobiidae

gobies

mano’o, mano’o-popo, mano’o-fugafuga, mano’o-apofusami, mano’o-a’au.

Lutjanidae

snappers

(those species not listed as CHCRT or BMUS)

mu, mu-taiva, tamala, malai, feloitega, mu-mafalaugutu, savane-ulusama, matala’oa.

Balistidae

trigger fishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

sumu, sumu-papa, sumu-taulau.

Siganidae

rabbitfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

lo

Kyphosidae

rudderfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

nanue, matamutu, mutumutu

Caesionidae

fusiliers

ulisega, atule-toto

Lethrinidae

emperors

(those species not listed as CHCRT or BMUS)

filoa, mata’ele’ele, ulamalosi

Muraenidae

Chlopsidae

Congridae

Moringuidae

Ophichthidae

eels

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

pusi, maoa’e, atapanoa, u’aulu, apeape, fafa, gatamea, pusi-solasulu.

Apogonidae

cardinalfishes

fo, fo-tusiloloa, fo-si’umu, fo-loloa, fo-tala, fo-manifi, fo-aialo, fo-tuauli.

Zanclidae spp.

moorish idols

pe’ape’a, laulaufau

Chaetodontidae

butterfly fishes

tifitifi, si’u, i’usamasama, tifitifi-segaula, laulafau-laumea, alosina.

Pomacanthidae

angelfishes

tu’u’u, tu’u’u-sama, tu’u’u-lega, tu’u’u-ulavapua, tu’u’u-matamalu, tu’u’u-alomu, tu’u’u-uluvela, tu’u’u-atugauli, tu’u’u-tusiuli, tu’u’u-manini.

Pomacentridae

damselfishes

tu’u’u, mutu, mamo, tu’u’u-lumane.

Scorpaenidae

scorpionfishes

i’atala, la’otele, nofu

Blenniidae

blennies

mano’o, mano’o-mo’o, mano’o-palea, mano’o-la’o.

Sphyraenidae spp

barracudas

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

sapatu

Cirrhitidae

hawkfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

la’o, ulutu’i, lausiva

Antennariidae

frogfishes

la’otale, nofu

Syngnathidae

pipefishes and seahorses

##

Pinguipedidae

sandperches

ta’oto

Gymnosarda unicolor

dog tooth tuna

tagi

Aulostomus chinensis

trumpetfish

taoto-ena, taoto-sama, ‘au’aulauti, taotito

Fistularia commersoni

cornetfish

taotao, taoto-ama

Tetradontidae

puffer fishes and porcupine fishes

sue, sue-vaolo, sue-va’a, sue-lega, sue-mu, sue-uli, sue-lape, sue-afa, sue-sugale.

Bothidae

Soleidae

flounders and soles

ali

Ostraciidae

trunkfishes

moamoa

Echinoderms

sea cucumbers and sea urchins

fugafuga, tuitui, sava’e

Heliopora

blue corals

amu

Tubipora

organpipe corals

amu

Azooxanthellates

ahermatypic corals

**

Fungiidae

mushroom corals

amu

small and large coral polyps

amu

Millepora

fire corals

amu

soft corals and gorgonians

amu

Actinaria

Anemones

lumane, matalelei

Zoanthinaria

soft zoanthid corals

**

Mollusca

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

##

Gastropoda

sea snails

sisi-sami

Trochus spp.

aliao, alili

Opistobranches

sea slugs

sea

Pinctada margaritifera

black lipped pearl oyster

##

Tridacnidae

giant clam

faisua

Other Bivalves

other Clams

pipi, asi, fatuaua, tio, pae, fole

Crustaceans

lobsters, shrimps/mantis shrimps, true crabs and hermit crabs

(those species not listed as Crustacean MUS)

ula, pa’a, kuku, papata

Tunicates

sea squirts

##

Porifera

Sponges

##

Stylasteridae

lace corals

amu

Solanderidae

Hydroid corals

amu

Annelids

segmented worms

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

##

Algae

seaweed

limu

Live rock

##

All other coral reef ecosystem management unit species that are marine plants, invertebrates, and fishes which spend the majority of their non-pelagic (post settlement) life history stages within waters less than or equal to 50 fathoms in total depth.