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Regulations and Enforcement – Hawaii

The Hawaii Archipelago Fishery Ecosystem Plan (FEP) contains federal bottomfish regulations, crustacean regulations, precious coral regulations and coral reef fish regulations for fisheries associated with the US exclusive economic zone (EEZ) waters surrounding Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) (3 to 200 miles offshore) and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWI) (0 to 200 miles offshore). The marine national monument in the NWHI has closed all NWHI Fisheries within its boundraries (0-50) since June 15, 2011. Summaries of federal regulations pertaining to these fisheries can be found below.

Federal fishing regulations applicable to the Hawaiian Archipelago are enforced by the NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Law Enforcement (OLE) Pacific Islands Division as well as the U.S. Coast Guard’s District Fourteen. For information on OLE, click here and for the U.S. Coast Guard, click here.

The following is a summary of federal regulations pertaining to the following fisheries. The full list of federal fishing regulations applicable to the Hawaii Archipelago can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 50: Wildlife & Fisheries, Chapter 7, Part 665, and can be accessed at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov. For the State of Hawaii’s fishing regulations, click here.

NOAA Fisheries Pacific Island Regional Office have compiled multiple compliance guides that are designed to provide information on current regulations that affect fishing around the Western Pacific. PDF copies of the compliance guides can be found at here.  Compliance guides are updated often, so check regularly for updates.

Bottomfish

• All bottomfish fishing vessels: a) ban on use of bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets; and b) ban on possession or use of any poisons, explosives or intoxicating substances to harvest bottomfish or seamount groundfish. NOAA has written a compliance guide titled, “Main Hawaiian Islands Bottomfish Fishing”, click here for link.
• NWHI

  • Required Mau Zone limited entry permit or Hoomalu Zone limited entry permit
  • Catch reporting (State of Hawaii form)
  • Catch quotas
  • On-board observer when directed by the National Marine Fisheries Service
  • Required vessel operator participation in protected species workshop
  • Vessel size limits
  • 24 hr USCG landing notification for Hoomalu Zone
  • Other regulations under the NWHI National Marine Monument

• MHI

  • Commercial fishing in state waters and EEZ around MHI requires State of Hawaii Commercial Marine License
  • Non-commercial permit and reporting for fishing in EEZ around MHI
  • Annual Total Allowable Catch quota for Hawaii Restricted Bottomfish Species specified in Federal Register by August 31st each year (Fishing year is September 1st – August 31st).
  • Individual non-commercial trip bag limits of no more than 5 fish (all species combined) of Hawaii Restricted Bottomfish Species

• Hancock Seamount

  • Fishing for bottomfish and seamount groundfish on the Hancock Seamount is prohibited through August 31, 2010.

Click here for list of federally managed bottomfish species.

Crustaceans

Lobsters

• NWHI-Lobster

  • Limited entry permit (15 total)
  • Federal logbook reporting
  • Gear restrictions (harvest lobsters by hand or trap only; restricted number of traps allowed)
  • Gear marking requirements
  • Closed areas and closed seasons
  • VMS
  • On-board observer when directed by the National Marine Fisheries Service
  • Annual Harvest Guidelines
  • Monk seal protective measures
  • Landing notification

•MHI-Lobsters

  • Federal permit and logbook reporting
  • Ban on fishing for, taking or retaining lobster with explosives, poisons or electrical shocking devices
  • Minimum size and condition restrictions
  • Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained.
  • Any lobster with a punctured or mutilated body, or a separated carapace and tail, may not be retained.
  • A female lobster of any size may not be retained if it is carrying eggs externally. Eggs may not be removed from female lobsters.
  • Notification before port landing and before offloading
  • Observer coverage when requested by National Marine Fisheries Service

Click here for list of federally managed crustacean species.

Deep-water Shrimp

•NWHI and MHI

  • Federal permit and logbook reporting

Precious Corals

• Federal permit and logbook reporting

• Use of only selective gear that can discriminate or differentiate between type, size, quality or characteristics of living or dead corals

• Bed specific quotas

• Closed areas

• Minimum height 10 inches for live pink coral

• Minimum stem diameter 1 inch or minimum height 48 inches for live black coral

• Moratorium on gold coral 2008 to 201
Click here for list of federally managed precious coral species.

Coral Reef Ecosystem

• Special permit, reporting and pre-landing

notification for any directed fishery harvesting potentially harvested coral reef taxa

• Allowable gear types include hand-harvest, spear, slurp gun, hand/dip net, hoop net for Kona crab, throw net, barrier net, surround/purse net that is attended at all times, hook-and-line, crab and fish traps with vessel ID number affixed or remote operating vehicle/submersible.

• Ban on possession and use of poisons, explosives or intoxicating substances to take coral reef ecosystem managed species

• Ban on harvest of live rock and living corals except for indigenous people for traditional uses and aquaculture operations for seed stock under special permit, reporting and pre-landing notification requirement

Click here for list of federally managed Coral Reef Ecosystem species.

For Pelagic Fisheries Regulations, click here.

Enforcement

State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Conservation and Resource Enforcement (DOCARE) enforces the State’s fishing regulations. For more information on DOCARE, click here.

Federal fishing regulations applicable to the Hawaii Archipelago are enforced by the NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Law Enforcement (OLE) Pacific Islands Division as well as the U.S. Coast Guard’s District Fourteen. Follow these links to find more information on OLE and the U.S. Coast Guard.

A cooperative enforcement agreement exists between the DOCARE and NMFS OLE, whereby NMFS OLE provides funding assistance to DOCARE to support in the enforcement of federal fishing regulations. See?

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Hawaii Archipelago FEP MUS

Hawaii Bottomfish Management Unit Species

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Local/Hawaiian Name

Aphareus rutilans

silver jaw jobfish

lehi

Aprion virescens

gray jobfish

uku

Caranx ignobilis

giant trevally

white papio/ulua au kea

Caranx lugubris

black jack

ulua la’uli

Epinephelus quernus

sea bass

hāpu‘upu‘u

Etelis carbunculus

red snapper

ehu

Etelis coruscans

longtail snapper

onaga or ‘ula‘ula koa‘e

Lutjanus kasmira

blue stripe snapper

ta‘ape

Pristipomoides auricilla

yellowtail snapper

kalekale

Pristipomoides filamentosus

pink snapper

‘ōpakapaka

Pristipomoides seiboldii

pink snapper

kalekale

Pristipomoides zonatus

snapper

gindai

Pseudocaranx dentex

thicklip trevally

pig ulua, butaguchi

Seriola dumerili

amberjack

kahala

Beryx splendens

alfonsin

NA

Pseudopentaceros richardsoni

armorhead

NA

See?

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Hawaii Crustacean Management Unit Species

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Local Name

Panulirus marginatus

spiny lobster

ula

Panulirus penicillatus

spiny lobster

ula

Family Scyllaridae

slipper lobster

ula papapa

Ranina ranina

Kona crab

papa’i kua loa

See?

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Hawaii Precious Corals Management Unit Species

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Local Name

Corallium secundum

pink coral

(also called red coral)

NA

Corallium regale

pink coral

(also called red coral)

NA

Corallium laauense

pink coral

(also called red coral)

NA

Gerardia spp.

gold coral

NA

Narella spp.

gold coral

NA

Lepidisis olapa

bamboo coral

NA

Antipathes dichotoma

black coral

NA

Antipathes grandis

black coral

NA

Antipathes ulex

black coral

NA

 

See?

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Hawaii Coral Reef Ecosystem MUS

(Currently Harvested Reef Taxa)

Family Name

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Local Name

Acanthuridae

(Surgeonfishes)

Acanthurus olivaceus

orange-spot surgeonfish

na‘ena‘e

Acanthurus xanthopterus

yellowfin surgeonfish

pualu

Acanthurus triostegus

convict tang

manini

Acanthurus dussumieri

eye-striped surgeonfish

palani

Acanthurus nigroris

blue-lined surgeon

maiko

Acanthurus leucopareius

whitebar surgeonfish

maiko or maikoiko

Acanthurusnigricans

whitecheek surgeonfish

NA

Acanthurus guttatus

white-spotted surgeonfish

‘api

Acanthurus blochii

ringtail surgeonfish

pualu

Acanthurusnigrofuscus

brown surgeonfish

mai‘i‘i

Ctenochaetus strigosus

yellow-eyed surgeonfish

kole

Ctenochaetus striatus

striped bristletooth

NA

Naso unicornus

bluespine unicornfish

kala

Naso lituratus

orangespine unicornfish

kalalei or umaumalei

Naso hexacanthus

black tongue unicornfish

kala holo

Naso annulatus

whitemargin unicornfish

kala

Naso brevirostris

spotted unicornfish

kala lolo

Naso caesius

gray unicornfish

NA

Zebrasoma flavescens

yellow tang

lau‘ipala

Balistidae

(Triggerfish)

Melichthys vidua

pinktail triggerfish

humuhumu hi‘ukole

Melichthys niger

black triggerfish

humuhumu ‘ele‘ele

Rhinecanthus aculeatus

picassofish

humuhumu nukunuku apua‘a

Sufflamen fraenatum

bridled triggerfish

NA

Carangidae

(Jacks)

Selar crumenophthalmus

bigeye scad

akule or hahalu

Decapterus macarellus

mackerel scad

‘opelu or ‘opelu mama

Carcharhinidae

(Sharks)

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos

grey reef shark

manō

Carcharhinus galapagensis

galapagos shark

manō

Carcharhinus melanopterus

blacktip reef shark

manō

Triaenodon obesus

whitetip reef shark

manō lalakea

Holocentridae

(Solderfish/

Squirrelfish

Myripristis berndti

bigscale soldierfish

menpachi or ‘u‘u

Myripristis amaena

brick soldierfish

menpachi or ‘u‘u

Myripristis chryseres

yellowfin soldierfish

menpachi or ‘u‘u

Myripristis kuntee

pearly soldierfish

menpachi or ‘u‘u

Sargocentron microstoma

file-lined squirrelfish

‘ala‘ihi

Sargocentron diadema

crown squirrelfish

‘ala‘ihi

Sargocentron punctatissimum

peppered squirrelfish

‘ala‘ihi

Sargocentron tiere

blue-lined squirrelfish

‘ala‘ihi

Sargocentron xantherythrum

hawaiian squirrelfish

‘ala‘ihi

Sargocentron spiniferum

saber or long jaw squirrelfish

‘ala‘ihi

Neoniphon spp.

spotfin squirrelfish

‘ala‘ihi

Kuhliidae

(Flagtails)

Kuhlia sandvicensis

Hawaiian flag-tail

‘aholehole

Kyphosidae

(Rudderfish)

Kyphosus biggibus

rudderfish

nenue

Kyphosus cinerascens

rudderfish

nenue

Kyphosus vaigiensis

rudderfish

nenue

Labridae

(Wrasses)

Bodianus bilunulatus

saddleback hogfish

‘a‘awa

Oxycheilinus unifasciatus

ring-tailed wrasse

po‘ou

Xyrichtys pavo

razor wrasse

laenihi or nabeta

Cheilio inermis

cigar wrasse

kupoupou

Thalassoma purpureum

surge wrasse

ho‘u

Thalassoma quinquevittatum

red ribbon wrasse

NA

Thalassoma lutescens

sunset wrasse

NA

Novaculichthys taeniourus

rockmover wrasse

NA

Mullidae

(Goatfishes)

Mulloidichthys spp.

yellow goatfish

weke

Mulloidichthys pfleugeri

orange goatfish

weke nono

Mulloidichthys vanicolensis

yellowfin goatfish

weke‘ula

Mulloidichthys flaviolineatus

yellowstripe goatfish

weke‘a or

weke a‘a

Parupeneus spp

banded goatfish

kumu or moano

Parupeneus bifasciatus

doublebar goatfish

munu

Parupeneus cyclostomas

yellowsaddle goatfish

moano kea or moano kale

Parupeneus pleurostigma

side-spot goatfish

malu

Parupeneus multifaciatus

multi-barred goatfish

moano

Upeneus arge

bantail goatfish

weke pueo

Mugilidae (Mullets)

Mugil cephalus

stripped mullet

‘ama‘ama

Neomyxus leuciscus

false mullet

uouoa

Muraenidae (Moray eels)

Gymnothorax flavimarginatus

yellowmargin moray eel

puhi paka

Gymnothorax javanicus

giant moray eel

puhi

Gymnothorax undulatus

undulated moray eel

puhi laumilo

Muraenidae

Enchelycore pardalis

dragon eel

puhi

Octopodidae

(Octopus)

Octopus cyanea

octopus

he‘e mauli or tako

Octopus ornatus

octopus

he‘e or tako

Polynemidae

Polydactylus sexfilis

threadfin

moi

Priacanthidae

(Big-eyes)

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus

glasseye

‘aweoweo

Priacanthus hamrur

bigeye

‘aweoweo

Scaridae

(Parrotfish)

Scarus spp.

parotfish

uhu or palukaluka

Calotomus carolinus

stareye parrotfish

panuhunuhu

Sphyraenidae (Barracuda)

Sphyraena helleri

Heller’s barracuda

kawele‘a or kaku

Sphyraena barracuda

great barracuda

kaku

Turbinidae

Turbo spp.

green snails

turban shells

NA

Zanclidae

Zanclus cornutus

moorish idol

kihikihi

Chaetodontidae

Chaetodon auriga

butterflyfish

kikakapu

Chaetodon lunula

raccoon butterflyfish

kikakapu

Chaetodon ephippium

saddleback butterflyfish

kikakapu

Sabellidae

featherduster worm

NA

 

Hawaii Coral Reef Ecosystem MUS

(Potentially Harvested Reef Taxa)

Scientific Name

English Common Name

Local Name

Labridae

wrasses

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

hinalea

Carcharhinidae

Sphyrnidae

sharks

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

manō

Dasyatididae

Myliobatidae

rays and skates

hihimanu

Serrandiae

groupers, seabass

(those species not listed as CHCRT or in BMUS)

roi, hapu’upu’u

Malacanthidae

tilefishes

NA

Carangidae

jacks and scads

(those species not listed as CHCRT or in BMUS)

dobe, kagami, pa‘opa‘o, papa, omaka, ulua,

Holocentridae

solderfishes and squirrelfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

‘u‘u

Mullidae

goatfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

weke, moano, kumu

Acanthuridae

surgeonfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

na’ena’e, maikoiko

Echeneidae

remoras

NA

Muraenidae

Congridae

Ophichthidae

eels

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

puhi

Apogonidae

cardinalfishes

‘upapalu

Clupeidae

herrings

NA

Engraulidae

anchovies

nehu

Caracanthidae

coral crouchers

NA

Gobiidae

gobies

‘o‘opu

Lutjanidae

snappers

(those species not listed as CHCRT or in BMUS)

to’au

Aulostomus chinensis

trumpetfish

nunu

Fistularia commersoni

cornetfish

nunu peke

Zanclidae spp.

moorish Idols

kihikihi

Chaetodontidae

butterflyfishes

kikakapu

Pomacanthidae

angelfishes

NA

Pomacentridae

damselfishes

mamo

Scorpaenidae

scorpionfishes, lionfishes

nohu, okoze

Blenniidae

blennies

pa o’o

Sphyraenidae spp

barracudas

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

kaku

Pinguipedidae

sandperches

NA

Bothidae

Soleidae

Pleurnectidae

flounders and soles

paki‘i

Ostraciidae

trunkfishes

makukana

Balistidae

trigger fishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

humu humu

Kyphosidae

rudderfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

nenue

Cirrhitidae

hawkfishes

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

po‘opa‘a

Tetradontidae

puffer fishes and porcupine fishes

‘o‘opu hue or fugu

Antennariidae

frogfishes

NA

Syngnathidae

pipefishes and seahorses

NA

Echinoderms

sea cucumbers and sea urchins

namako, lole, wana

Mollusca

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

NA

Azooxanthellates

ahermatypic corals

ko‘a

Fungiidae

mushroom corals

ko‘a

small and large coral polyps

ko‘a

soft corals and gorgonians

NA

Actinaria

anemones

NA

Zoanthinaria

soft zoanthid corals

NA

Solanderidae

hydroid corals

NA

Stylasteridae

lace corals

ko‘a

Crustaceans

lobsters, shrimps,

mantis shrimps, true crabs and hermit crabs

(those species not listed as CMUS)

ula, a‘ama, mo‘ala, ‘alakuma

Hydrozoans and Bryzoans

NA

Pinctada margaritifera

black lipped pearl oyster

NA

Other Bivalves

other clams

NA

Tunicates

sea squirts

NA

Porifera

sponges

NA

Cephalopods

octopi

tako, he‘e

Gastropoda

sea snails

NA

Opistobranches

sea slugs

NA

Algae

seaweed

limu

Live rock

NA

Annelids

segmented worms

(those species not listed as CHCRT)

NA

All other coral reef ecosystem management unit species that are marine plants, invertebrates, and fishes which spend the majority of their non-pelagic (post settlement) life history stages within waters less than or equal to 50 fathoms in total depth.