The Antiquities Act of 1906 obligates federal agencies that manage public lands to preserve for present and future generations the historic, scientific, commemorative, and cultural values of the archaeological and historic sites and structures on these lands. It also authorizes the President to protect landmarks, structures, and objects of historic or scientific interest by designating them as National Monuments. In 2006, Presidents began using the Antiquities Act to designate Marine National Monuments. Four of the five such monuments are located in the Western Pacific Region, encompass more than half of the U.S. EEZ waters surrounding Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Territories and remote islands, and prohibit U.S. commercial fishermen from operating in these U.S. waters.

Executive Order 13291 – Promoting American Seafood Competitiveness and Economic Growth. May 7, 2020

Executive Order 13924 – Regarding the Ocean Policy to Advance the Economic, Security, and Environmental Interests of the United States, May 19, 2020

Executive Order 13795 – Implementing an America-First Offshore Energy Strategy, April 27, 2017

Executive Order 13792 – Review of Certain National Monument Established Since 1996, May 11, 2017

Review of Certain National Monuments Established Since 1996 and Review of National Marine Sanctuaries and marine national Monuments Designated or Expanded since April 28, 2007 – Comments from State and Territorial Governments

Review of Certain National Monuments Established Since 1996 – Council Comments 07-10-17